Today marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of the first in a series of articles introducing the world to the Higgs/Englert/Brout/Guralnik/Hagen/Kibble mechanism (or what everyone tends to call the Higgs mechanism because, well, it is much shorter). This mechanism is the theoretical framework by which certain particles acquire their mass (in whole or in part, depending upon the particle).
- F. Englert and R. Brout, “Broken Symmetry and the Mass of Gauge Vector Mesons“,Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 321-323 (1964).Received 26 June 1964. Published 31 August 1964. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.13.321.
- P. W. Higgs. “Broken symmetries, massless particles and gauge fields”, Phys. Lett. 12, 132–133 (1964). Received 27 July 1964. Published 15 September 1964. doi: 10.1016/0031-9163(64)91136-9.
- P. W. Higgs, “Broken Symmetries and Masses of Gauge Bosons“, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 508-509 (1964). Received 31 August 1964. Published 19 October 1964. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.13.508.
- Guralnik, G. S., Hagen, C. R. & Kibble, T. W. B. “Global Conservation Laws and Massless Particles“, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 585–587 (1964). Received 12 October 1964. Published 16 November 1964. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.13.585.
- P. W. Higgs, “Spontaneous symmetry breakdown without massless bosons”, Phys. Rev.145 (1966) 1156–1163. Received 27 December 1965. Published 27 May 1966. doi: 10.1103/PhysRev.145.1156.
- T. Kibble, “Symmetry breaking in non-Abelian gauge theories”, Phys. Rev. 155(1967) 1554–1561.Received 24 October 1966. Published 25 March 1967. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.155.1554
Note that Peter Higgs was but one of many individuals who arrived at this model concurrently. His was not even the first paper out of the gate. It is also worth noting that the second Higgs paper was initially rejected for publication. Higgs then added to the end of the paper a prediction that his hypothetical field could be excited to form a boson, which we now refer to as the Higgs boson, and re-submitted his paper for publication in PRL. It was this boson whose discovery was announced on July 4, 2012 and for which Higgs and Englert were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2013. (Sadly, Robert Brout passed away in 2011.)
- 1964 PRL symmetry breaking papers | Wikipedia
- “Focus: Nobel Prize – Why Particles Have Mass“, Physics 6, 111 (2013). DOI: 10.1103/Physics.6.111.
- Englert-Brout-Higgs-Guralnik-Hagen-Kibble mechanism | Scholarpedia
- Englert-Brout-Higgs-Guralnik-Hagen-Kibble mechanism (history) | Scholarpedia
- The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013
- Brief History of the Higgs Mechanism
- R. Brout, F. Englert, “Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Gauge Theories: a Historical Survey” (1998) arXiv:hep-th/9802142v2
- Oral History Transcript – Dr. Philip Anderson
- Peter Woit, “The Anderson-Higgs Mechanism” | Not Even Wrong